Human Dimensions of Urban Forestry and Urban Greening
nature & Consumer Environments Trees and Transportation Civic Ecology Policy & Planning Urban Forestry and Human Benefits

A community of science, that includes investigators from all around the world, have been studying how nearby nature improves human health and wellness.

The Green Cities: Good Health web site summarizes nearly 40 years of research and thousands of peer-reviewed publications. This page contains some of our own team's work related to human health and wellness benefits, including products that translate the research to local policy and planning.


Studies, Papers & Information

Evidence of Nearby Nature and Human Health Outcomes
Nearby nature is a term that captures the diverse and complex natural and ecological elements in cities, including patches of native landscapes, gardens and other cultural landscapes, urban farms, and the urban forest. A science review, Green Cties: Good Health, shares the results of thousands of peer-reviewed publications about the associations between metro nature and human health and wellness. Building on the article database, our team is now sharing other analyses and ideas about the role of metro nature for urban quality of life - including economic valuation.


Wolf, K.L., M.K. Measells, S.C. Grado, A.S.T. Robbins. 2015. Economic values of metro nature health benefits: A life course approach. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 14, 694-701.(link)


Wolf, K.L., A.S.T. Robbins. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environmental Health Perspectives 123, 5:390-8 (link)


Nature & Health - Policy & Planning

new professional product

Wolf, K.L. 2016. Nature's Riches: The Health and Financial Benefits of Nearby Nature. University of Washington and The Nature Conservancy (4.0 M pdf) add other languages


House, E., C. O'Connor, K. Wolf, J. Israel, & T. Reynolds. 2016. Outside our Doors: the benefits of cities where people and nature thrive. Seattle, WA: The Nature Conservancy, Washington State Chapter, 26 pp. (1.8 M pdf) (link)

  professional product

2015. Green strategies to improve public health and save billions. International Innovations, issue 195, pp.56-57. (online magazine) (704 K pdf)


Wolf, K.L., and C. Vondrasek. 2014. Technologies for Metro Nature Health Benefits Mapping. Seattle: University of Washington. (24.5 M pdf)


Wolf, K.L., & E. Housley. 2014. Reflect and Restore: Urban Green Space for Mental Wellness. Annapolis MD: TKF Foundation, 12 pp. (7.8 M pdf)

  professional product

Wolf, K.L., & E. Housley. 2014. Environmental Equality: Providing Nearby Nature for Everyone. Annapolis MD: TKF Foundation, 16 pp. (1 M pdf) (link)


Wolf, K.L., & E. Housley. 2013. Feeling Stressed? Take a Time Out in Nature. Annapolis MD: TKF Foundation, 8 pp. (2.4 M pdf)


Wolf, K.L. 2008. Metro Nature Services: Functions, Benefits and Values, pp. 294-315. In: S.M. Wachter and E.L. Birch (Eds.), Growing Greener Cities: Urban Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 416 pp.(4.3 M pdf)

  Wolf, K. L. 2003. Ergonomics of the City: Green Infrastructure and Social Benefits. In C. Kollin (ed.), Engineering Green: Proceedings of the 11th National Urban Forest Conference. Washington D.C.: American Forests. (pdf 260K)

Other Research Organizations
Other universities, centers and laboratories are doing research on urban trees and greening and the relationships to human health, well-being, and quality of life.


Urban Ecosystems and Processes :: US Forest Service, Pacific SW Research Station (link)

    Urban Natural Resources Stewardship :: US Forest Service, Northern Research Station (link)
    Eco-Health Relationship Browser :: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (link)
    Civic Ecology Lab :: Cornell University (link)
    Landscape and Human Health Laboratory :: University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (link)
    Open Spaces-Sacred Spaces :: TKF Foundation (link)
    Children and Nature Network (link)
    The Nature of Cities (link)
    Plants for People (link)
    Social, Economic Development and Urban Greening :: UK Forestry Commission (link)

Information about Dr. Kathleen Wolf, Projects Director



    Curriculum Vitae (link)

Human Dimensions of Urban Forestry and Urban Greening
Nature & Consumer Environments - Trees & Transportation - Civic Ecology
Policy & Planning - Urban Forestry & Human Benefits

updated May 10, 2020